Как «Щелкунчик» Чайковского стал Рождественской классикой

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Как и почему балет Чайковского стал одной из основных традиций рождественского сезона? Клеменси Бартон-Хилл (Clemency Burton-Hill) отправляется на поиски причин всеобщей притягательности.

балет щелкунчик

Балет «Щелкунчик» — это такая же неотъемлемая часть новогодних праздников, как выпечка пирогов, украшение елок и колядки. В настоящее время многие компании, которые занимаются организацией представлений, делают акцент на эту постановку; семьи по всему миру ежегодно планируют свои праздники с учетом посещения такого мероприятия. И в списке не только поклонники балета: «Рождество без Щелкунчика, — сказал один из фанатов, — не может быть Рождеством!».

 

Каким же образом произведение, сюжет которого никак не похож на Рождественскую историю, стало настолько символичным в зимний сезон? Более того, как произведение, подвергавшееся резкой критике во время премьеры, стало «драгоценным камнем в короне» любой заслуживающей уважения балетной компании? И почему короткая романтичная немецкая история, оформленная музыкой российского композитора и получившая жизнь на сцене благодаря французскому хореографу, в настоящее время пользуется такой популярностью и всеобщей любовью?

балет щелкунчик

Сказка Гофмана (1816) о Щелкунчике и Мышином Короле была адаптирована Александром Дюма (знаменитым на тот момент благодаря «Трем Мушкетерам») в 1844 г.; а к 1892 г. была создана балетная постановка, выполненная по заказу директора Императорского театра России, находящегося в предвкушении после успеха «Спящей красавицы» П.И. Чайковского двумя годами ранее. Клара, юная девушка, спускается по лестнице к новогодней елке, чтобы поиграть со своим любимым подарком — Щелкунчиком. Мистический волшебник Дроссельмейер поджидает ее, чтобы отправить в волшебное приключение. После победы над подлым Мышиным Королем, Клара и Щелкунчик, летят на золотых санях через страну Снега в Королевство Конфет, где Фея Драже приглашает их посмотреть потрясающие танцы, и сама для них танцует. Проснувшись в своей кровати, Клара убеждена, что все это ей не приснилось, ведь она узнает в одном из родственников племянника Дроссельмейера.

балет щелкунчик

В балете нет религиозного подтекста, избегается тема рождения Иисуса; здесь только праздник, которые многие семьи, независимо от религиозных убеждений, отмечают в это время года.

«Волшебный мир маленьких детей, родителей, игрушек, Рождественских елей, танцующих снежинок и вкусных сладостей, — всё отлично подходит к «глубокой и красивой» музыке Чайковского», — как сказал ведущий балетный критик Аластер Маколей (Alastair Macaulay ).

«Это некая сладкая капля», согласилась танцовщица Изабель Макмикэн(Isabel McMeekan), основатель «Балета для всех»(  Everybody Ballet), цель которого — сделать балет понятным и доступным для каждого. Будучи первой солисткой в Королевском балете, она танцевала в «Щелкунчике» много лет, в течение которых ее роли менялись от Феи Драже до Феи Роз в составе арабских и испанских танцовщиков труппы.

«Вечная Рождественская история, которая оживает на сцене. Есть девушка, юноша, мечта, волшебное дерево, вырастающее до 7 футов, блестящие снежинки, и действительно тяжелая хореография под удивительный счет. Как же не влюбиться во все это?»

  

Расколоть твердую скорлупу.

Не всегда всё было таким «сладким». Если бы во время премьеры в Санкт-Петербурге вы обратились к критикам с вопросом, что им понравилось, то могли бы услышать в ответ «Ничего!». Чайковский, который отличался самокритичностью, не возлагал особых надежд на успех, и получил подтверждение своим опасениям в первых же рецензиях на спектакль.

«Щелкунчик» ни при каких обстоятельствах не может считаться балетом. Он не удовлетворяет ни одному из требований балетных постановок», — было слышно с одной стороны.

балет щелкунчик

«Слишком мало женственного в танце, искусства нет совсем, и для будущего нашего балета – это еще один шаг назад», — был возглас с другой стороны. Критики также восстали против сюжета, точнее в отсутствие такового: «Здесь нет целостной истории — только набор несвязанных сцен, напоминающих пантомимы, которыми переполнены театральные бульвары». А одному из критиков настолько не понравился спектакль, что он принял его за оскорбление, и добавил: «Слава богу, подобные неудачные эксперименты случаются не так часто».

 Критики ошибались. В этом году «Щелкунчик» в исполнении Королевского Балета  культовой постановки Питера Райта, транслировался в прямом эфире 16 декабря приблизительно в 2000 кинотеатров во всем мире. Такой глобальный охват подтверждает,  что «Щелкунчик» «разговаривает» с каждым. В особенности, нравится американцам.

балет щелкунчик

В 1954 г. американский хореограф Джордж Баланчин создал версию для балета Нью-Йорка, которая до сих пор считается праздничной классикой США. «Благодаря танцующим снежинкам, — как выяснил критик Маколей, — «Щелкунчик» стал своеобразным ритуалом для тех городов, в которых редко выпадает снег – от Гавайев до Флориды». «За последние 70 лет, этот балет, созданный во времена Старого Света, стал неотъемлемой частью жизни американцев», — пишет он во время своего участия в «Марафоне Щелкунчика» в 2010 году, проходящего во время «сезона доброй воли» (период со Дня благодарения до Нового года).

 Выручка от продажи билетов в этот сезон колоссальна. Балетный критик Лорен Галлахер(Lauren Gallagher) отмечает, что, например, в случае балета Сан-Франциско «шоу собирает приблизительно 40% выручки от продажи билетов компании каждый год». В то же время   Даниель Джейвакин (Daniel J Wakin) в газете Нью-Йорк Таймс пишет: «Праздничный «забег» «Щелкунчика» обычно полностью покрывает все расходы Американской танцевальной компании».

 

балет щелкунчикДля каждого найдется что-то свое.

 Балетная постановка хоть и не напрямую, но повлияла на рост экономики. Одним из любопытных побочных продуктов этого успеха –  появление у американцев (которые, к слову, ежегодно тратят на Рождественские украшения больше чем 8 млрд)  традиции коллекционировать Щелкунчиков. Одна из старинных немецких семей Штейнбах создает свои изделия способом, передающимся из поколения в поколение. Члены этой семьи утверждают, что именно балет «разжигает и поддерживает страсть» к памятному подарку, выполненному из дерева, который, согласно немецкой легенде, приносит удачу, защищает семью и домашний очаг. «Сильная вера и следование данной традиции, — говорят они, —серьезно увеличивает спрос американцев на Щелкунчиков».

«В нас как будто заложен инстинкт  коллекционеров,  особенно когда дело касается культурно-популярных вещей», — соглашается  журналист Норин Мэлон (Noreen Malone). И тот факт, что она назвала балет «культурно-популярным», говорит сам за себя. Комментируя быстрое увеличение массового выпуска Щелкунчиков, она заметила следующее: «На самом деле, жадным американским потребителям неважно происхождение Щелкунчика, им просто нужно что-то, что было бы похоже на парня из балетной постановки».

«Парень из балета», загадочный Щелкунчик, всего лишь один из персонажей поистине великолепного ансамбля. История наполнена визуально ошеломляющими и балетно- завораживающими героями, и каждый найдет в ней что-то для себя. Поэтому данное произведение играет бОльшую роль, нежели просто забавное блестящее шоу в сентиментальное время года. Для многих молодых людей, которые посещают «Щелкунчика», будь то поход с семьей или школьный выезд, это первая встреча с балетом, а, может, и первое соприкосновение с искусством в живом исполнении.

Как говорит ДжейВакин : «Очень важно знакомить детей с таким видом искусства, потому что они, в свою очередь, являются будущими зрителями, т.е. покупателями». Многие маленькие танцоры, участвующие в постановке, вдохновляют своих же ровесников: когда я был ребенком, и наблюдал за детьми, исполняющими роли мышей или Клары, мне хотелось работать над моими плие усерднее; это заложило во мне любовь к балетному искусству, которая существует и по сей день.

Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre's production of The Nutcracker

Макмикэн настаивает, что не только маленькие девочки остаются очарованными балетным танцем: «Да, в постановке есть Фея Драже, которая является воплощением классической балерины, но также есть и Мышиный Король, и он тоже очень хорош; много других танцоров-персонажей со всего света, которые показывают совершенно разное — всё является захватывающим и волнующим зрелищем». Когда она говорит о «Щелкунчике», как о «балете для всех», то имеет ввиду не только зрителей: сами танцоры влюблены в этот балет.

«Действительно, большое удовольствие как танцевать в постановке, так и смотреть – и это находит отклик в обществе. Здорово, что «Щелкунчик» проходит каждый год, и многие здесь могут сыграть свою роль, но идет всего лишь 2 часа, так что, быстро заканчивается. И несмотря на то, что в постановке есть несколько сложных танцевальных моментов, — отмечает Макмикэн, — это не Лебединое озеро, которое страшно-старшно танцевать. «Щелкунчик» остается одним в своем роде — больше такого нет».

 Перевод: Наталья Константинова и Горючкина Анна

Оригинальный текст статьи: http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20151218-how-tchaikovskys-nutcracker-became-a-christmas-classic

Если Вам понравилась статья — не забудьте поделиться с друзьями и поставить ЛАЙК. Тогда мы будем знать какие статьи чаще публиковать.

 

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