Хоровод: виды, обычаи, символы русского народа

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Народный танец – душа народа, его верования и обычаи, дух и темперамент, чувства и надежды, быт.  В русском народном танце отражается вся многогранность традиций и обрядов, стоящих на стыке православия и язычества. Один из самых красивых и тесно связанных с ритуальной стороной жизни древних славян народный танец – хоровод.

Горка хоровод народная хореография

Хоровод (в старые времена его называли еще харагод, курагод, коло и др.) – это древний обрядовый круговой танец с элементами драматического действа.Как правило, его исполняли женщины, но бывали и смешанные хороводы.Первые весенние хороводы начинали водить со Святой недели (следующей за Пасхой) и заканчивали вечером на Красную горку. И все лето и осень по большим праздникам и по грустным поводам исполняли хоровод.

Танец, песня, игра здесь были неразлучны. Молодые в хороводе знакомились и влюблялись. Существовало два основных вида танца. В орнаментных хороводах особое внимание уделялось рисунку. Сюжетной линии в песне здесь не было, слова ее создавали, например, образ родной земли или описывали труд в поле. Отличался этот танец четкостью композиционных перестроений: из круга рисовались восьмерки, змейки, колонны. Вторая разновидность хороводов – игровые. Здесь в песне прослеживалась сюжетная линия, были действующие лица. Исполнители хоровода с помощью жестов, мимики и пляски воплощали песенную историю в жизнь.

Но в чем же сакральный смысл танца? Во-первых,круговая композиция подобна солнцу, богу которого поклонялись славяне-язычники. Во-вторых, в разное время года, на праздниках, танец выполнял разную функцию. Например, первыми весенними хороводами задабривали богов плодородия, в июле славили Купалу и просили его помочь созреванию плодов, на Троицу хоровод водили вокруг березки. Береза считалась символом красоты и чистоты, проводником энергии. Более того, береза была покровительницей семьи и домашнего очага и могла подарить плодородие. Девушки собирались в хороводы вокруг этого священного дерева, чтобы пробудить в нем силу и приобщиться к ней. Такие «хороводы силы» водили все лето и верили, что они помогут исцелиться, исполнить желание и даже защитить свою землю.

Горка хоровод народная хореография

Особенно интересны традиции севера Руси. Там хоровод отличался от среднерусского. Интересно, что в селе Усть-Цильма Республики Коми  во время Красных горок и в наши дни водят хоровод в старых традициях. По церковному календарю,»Горка» начиналась с Николы вешнего (22 мая), продолжалась в Троицу  и в каждое воскресение, если позволяла погода, захватывала Иван день (7 июля) и заканчивалась в день первоверховных апостолов Петра и Павла (12 июля).

Горочное «хождение под песню» исполняется и мужчинами  и женщинами всех возрастов в традиционных костюмах несколько раз в день, а в полном виде — вечером, завершая собой празднество. В танец заложено 17 различных фольклорных сюжетов. Во время него обязательно используются 7 символических фигур. Первая фигура – столбы. В ней участвуют только женщины. Это неподвижный квадрат, танцовщицы с конца которого по трое выходят чуть в сторону и, обойдя остальных, встают вначале. Продолжается до тех пор, пока так не пройдут все. Действо символизирует продолжение рода.

Первые шесть фигур Усть-Цилемского хоровода

Горка хоровод народная хореография

Столбы переходят в вожжу. Участники движутся волнистой линией — змейкой — с постепенно уменьшающейся амплитудой, проходя под аркой, образованной руками первой пары. Затем наступает очередь плетня. Участники движутся по раскручивающейся из центра спирали. Затем колонна водящих хоровод делает петлю в виде круга. Следующая фигура Сторона на сторону — мужчины и женщины разделяются на две шеренги, которые то расходятся в разные стороны, то вновь сближаются. При этом девушки роняют платки и венки на землю, а юноши поднимают их и возвращают их хозяйкам. Эта хороводная игра изображает сватовство и женитьбу молодых. Шестая часть горочного обрядового танца — на четыре стороны — символизирует урожай. Называется она так потому, что все участники встают квадратом и начинают делать движения, показывающие, что они «сеют просо».В заключение начинается плясовая часть. Это уже не хоровод, не ритуал, а обыкновенные праздничные народные танцы под гармонь — барыня и кадриль.

Сколько земель, традиций, песен на Руси – столько и хороводов. И какими бы наивными не казались современному человеку задабривания богов плодородия или изгнания злых духов с помощью танца  — это целый пласт культуры и народного сознания.

Текст: Анна Юдина

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